DNA can be modified by methylation of cytosine bases, particularly cytosines preceding guanines (CpG dinucleotides), by enzymes called DNA methyltransferases. This epigenetic modification generally functions to repress gene expression and is important for the regulation of cellular differentiation and development. DNA methylation can also serve as an epigenetic biomarker for many human diseases.
Bisulfite conversion, also known as bisulfite treatment, is used to deaminate non-methylated cytosine to produce uracil in DNA. Methylated cytosines (5-methylcytosines) are protected from the conversion to uracil, allowing the use of sequencing to determine their locations at single-nucleotide resolution. Bisulfite is considered the "gold standard" for downstream applications to assess DNA methylation status. The EZ DNA Methylation products by Zymo Research are the most cited and trusted products in the industry for investigating DNA methylation. We also offers many other products to facilitate DNA methylation experiments, such as methylation-sensitive enzymatic approaches to provide region-specific resolution of methylation status, methylated DNA standards, DNA methyltransferase enzymes, antibodies, and products and services for genome-wide DNA methylation analyses.